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February 6, 2018

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Chapter 6: Basic Human Energetics and Fuel Partitioning


Post 15 of 365

This is part 7of my review in Layman's terms  of the book 'The Art and Science of Low carbohydrate Living' By Jeff S. Volek, PhD, RD & Stephen D. Phinney, MD, PhD



Physiology ; This chapter is to introduce you to basic physiology and human energy metabolism. Different organs and cells use up different fuel types this is either through food or stored energy. This is looking at basic information on the concept of keto-adaption during low carb living.


Carbohydrate Metabolism

There are about 4 calories per gram of carbohydrates (this is in pure form). when digested most carbs turn into glucose, also called blood sugar, the only exception is Fructose (this in turned into fat in our liver). a healthy non-diabetic individual would have on average about 2 teaspoons of glucose circulation the body at any one time. So when we eat and absorb foods such as potatoes, rice we get extra glucose entering the blood stream, our body clears it quickly or it would be an instant case of diabetes.

* Diabetes is the body's inability to dispose of glucose entering the bloodstream.

  *Type-1  your body can't make insulin

  *Type- 2 your body can make insulin but your cells ignore it  (aka insulin resistance)

Glucose normally leaves the bloodstream into muscle and used immediately or stored as glycogen in cells for use later. The liver also stores the glycogen for release to keep the blood sugar at the normal rate. So... if there is already enough glycogen store the rest of the glucose   or fructose(from carb) gets turned into fat and stored in your fat cells, this is called lipogenesis, this is irreversible. 


Protein Metabolism

Protein consists of 20 amino acids and is used to build and maintain structures of the body, tendons, bone, skin, hair, muscles, kidneys liver, intestine, lungs etc.amino acids are also used to make enzymes, transporters, molecules, hormones etc. As you can see proteins are extremely important for the constant development and functioning of the human body. If the body is receiving a reduced amount of protein it will break down tissue some were in your body to get the required amino acids. when first on a low carb diet more protein may be needed to replenish the body but as the body is adapted protein can be reduced to normal recommended levels.