Chapter 11 : part 1-Personalized Nutrition
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This is part 14 of my review in Layman's terms of the book 'The Art and Science of Low carbohydrate Living' By Jeff S. Volek, PhD, RD & Stephen D. Phinney, MD, PhD
Personalized nutrition can be complicated, every nutritionist gets asked, 'what should I eat?','how much should I restrict my carbohydrate?', 'the answer is always ' it depends!'. Even though the national dietary guidelines promotes a one size fits all approach , this is not the case in personalized approaches to lifestyles as we are all individuals. This chapter looks at carbohydrate tolerance, your personal genome and addressing the movement towards personalized approach to diet.
Diet and Variability
Diets vary in different circumstances, different lifestyles, and of course as humans we may have different reactions, even if you are eating and exercising the same as the person next to you , the outcome may not be the same. For some people exercising vigorously may not lead to weight loss or better health and for others it's the only way to go. The studies looked at in this section are looking at genes having a major role in how we respond to diet and exercise.
Nutrigenetics and Nutrigenomics
Nutrigenetics and Nutigenomics is the interplay between diet and genes and even our susceptibility to disease. This is very important as an individual and what works best for you may not work for your co-worker.
Complexity of Nutritional Signals
Our energy to the body is provided by the 4 macro-nutrients, carbohydrate, fat, protein and alcohol. the body also needs a steady source of essential micro-nutrients, vitamins,and minerals, these must be obtained from food. This nutrient intake induces hormonal responses that impact a range of physiologic processes.It is important to know the interaction of nutrients and their outcomes, A few examples are, iron works at its best when consumed with vitamin C, and saturated fat effects on the body varies when consumed with carbohydrates!
Complexity of the Genome
Not to go to deeply into this subject , even though it is absolutely fascinating, the genome consists of over 3 billion base pairs made up of long chains of adenine, guanine, cytosine and thymine on the 23 chromosomes. Each human has about 21,000 genes scattered around the genome. Everybody,s DNA is about 99-99.5%identical to every other persons DNA. The .5 to 1% different s is what differs us from each other, The two major variants are copy number variants, from cultures and historical copies of genes . The second most abundant is single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP's), which can vary in 21,000 proteins . This combined is what makes us all individuals. This is all considered in what our bodies are programed to eat (cultural) and as an individual what our personal SNPs are, i.e. unable to digest lactose, gluten etc.
This is a fascinating subject and I could go on and on about it, that's why I've split this chapter into 2 sections, to try and fit in as much as possible. As this book was first written in 2011, a lot of research has happened since which explains the body and its complexity a little more. The next post is away from this book and will explain a bit more generally, about gene methylation, again I'm not going to deep, but touching the surface to get you interested.